How Do Speakers Work? Definitive Guide:

Who doesn’t enjoy good music? Everyone does.

But if you love music and you think the louder the better then you will eventually find yourself in need of a set of speakers. But if you want to select good & cheap speakers then you must know how do speakers work. Here is how you can learn to select a speaker that fits your taste.

A speaker is such a widely used device which can be seen in almost every home, car, computer system, Bluetooth earbuds & deices like iPod and mobile phones and other various applications.

So today speakers can be found in all shapes and sizes ranging from smaller portable Bluetooth speakers to bulkier hi-fi sound systems.

The purchase of speakers goes hand in hand with its abundant use so you must have the idea of what type of speaker you are looking for.

Having the necessary knowledge about a device before purchasing it can help you in a number of ways some of which are:

  • Save your time
  • Help in making the right decision
  • Not let your money get wasted
  • Determine the problem within your device if ever a problem occurs
  • Determine if the device needs repairs or needs to be changed altogether

It is also necessary to have the background knowledge regarding the working of a speaker when you intend to invest in one.

This article covers the internal working of a speaker to better enable you to buy one.

Operating Principle

Let me give you the answer of your question ” How do speakers work”

A speaker works on the principle of transducers. Transducers convert one form of energy into another form. Similarly speakers convert electrical energy into sound energy giving an audio output.

In other words the electric energy of the music or sound signal is converted into an audible sound energy wave by means of speakers.

How do Speakers make Sound?

Speakers produce sound by means of an assembly of components that can be listed as:

  • Permanent Magnet
  • Electromagnet
  • Cone

The permanent magnet is stationary and fixed in its place. Whereas the electromagnet revolves around the permanent magnet. Electromagnets possess the property to reverse their polarity with the direction of current.

So when it revolves around the permanent magnet the constant polarity shift generates an electromagnetic wave that is transmitted to the flexible cone structure. The electromagnetic wave creates a push/pull motion in the cone creating sound waves.

In order to better understand this mechanism the speaker structure is further broken down into its internal components as under:

how do speakers work

Magnet Structure

  • It refers to the assembly of permanent magnet and electromagnetic coil.

Voice Coil

  • It is the carrier coil through which current flows in perpendicular direction to the magnetic field.


  • This part vibrates in accordance with the voice coil. The vibratory motion produces the mechanical energy that is translated to the diaphragm.


  • It refers to the cone-shaped outer profile. It is made of a flexible material to accommodate variations in sound waves. The diaphragm can be seen vibrating at substantially high volumes.


  • This is necessary to prevent the vibrations from affecting the fixed components like the permanent magnet.

Dust Cap

  • Prevents dust from accumulating in the circuit and disrupting the proper functioning of the speaker.

The understanding of the internal structure of the speaker and its working helps user to identify any possible problems within the speaker and make necessary repairs or replacements.

Main Functional Requirements

SWhat a user requires from a good set of speakers is amplified sound with good quality and minimum to no distortion.

So main functional requirements are:

  • Amplified Sound
  • High Quality
  • No Distortion
Why is Sound Amplified?

Amplification is necessary because the sound signal received by the speaker has low powered electrical pulse.

  • In order to convert this signal into an audible sound wave speakers utilize amplifiers. As the name suggests amplifiers intensify low powered signals into high power state.
  • Older versions of speakers utilized valve amplifiers that functioned at high voltages but the modern versions use solid state amplifiers that are cheaper and lighter in weight.
What Factors Determine Quality?

Quality is a major selling point for all speakers but when you go to buy a speaker you must know what are the things that you should consider and the factors that meet your requirements..

The factors that are taken into account while considering quality are:

  • Size
  • Frequency
  • Wavelength
  • Power consumption
  • Movability

It is to be noted that none of these factors have a direct relation with quality but it is more dependent on the user’s needs. These are discussed in two categories to get a better idea:

So the user must keep in view his/her specific requirements from a set of speakers and then select a speaker to achieve their desired quality.

Other possible factors that play a role are shape and type of material used. It goes without saying that quality also depends on the shape and material of the speaker but most speakers available in the market have a standard for the shape and material that has been perfected over the years.

How Distortion can be Limited?

  • Distortion of a sound signal occurs when the user tries to get an audio output greater than the speaker’s capacity or when the signal being fed to the amplifier is higher than its operating range.
It could also occur because of faulty equipment. In any case distortion is undesirable and needs to be eliminated.
  • In order to limit distortion you must determine the headroom. Headroom is the tolerance level you achieve when you keep in view the average sound output you require and the maximum sound capacity of your speaker.
  • If your required sound output exceeds the speaker’s sound capacity then it is best to look for a different speaker with the sound capacity that matches your requirement.

“But in case the distortion is caused by faulty equipment then you must consider repairs or replacement.”

My Name is Hazel, I am Content Manager @freeholidaywifi. In my spare time i like to write about Tech, Software's & more. Other then that i love football & travelling new places.

Write A Comment